This is an illustration of a brown dwarf, spotted by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, surrounded by a spinning protoplanetary disk. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech Enlarge

(Phys.org) —A new theory by fluid dynamics experts at the University of California, Berkeley, shows how "zombie vortices" help lead to the birth of a new star.

Reporting today (Tuesday, Aug. 20) in the journal Physical Review Letters, a team led by computational physicist Philip Marcus shows how variations in gas density lead to instability, which then generates the whirlpool-like vortices needed for stars to form.

Astronomers accept that in the first steps of a 's birth,  of gas collapse into clumps that, with the aid of , spin into one or more Frisbee-like disks where a protostar starts to form. But for the protostar to grow bigger, the spinning disk needs to lose some of its angular momentum so that the gas can slow down and spiral inward onto the protostar. Once the protostar gains enough mass, it can kick off .

"After this last step, a star is born," said Marcus, a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

What has been hazy is exactly how the cloud disk sheds its angular momentum so mass can feed into the protostar.

Destabilizing forces

The leading theory in astronomy relies on magnetic fields as the destabilizing force that slows down the disks. One problem in the theory has been that gas needs to be ionized, or charged with a , in order to interact with a . However, there are regions in a protoplanetary disk that are too cold for  to occur.

"Current models show that because the gas in the disk is too cool to interact with magnetic fields, the disk is very stable," said Marcus. "Many regions are so stable that astronomers call them dead zones so it has been unclear how disk matter destabilizes and collapses onto the star."

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